The results of recent experience in Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) and commercial contracts with private sector have had a mix of successful and failing experiences in countries in the region and worldwide. The central question to be debated in this session is about BOT and delegation/sub-contracting experiences. What’s new and how the “truism” narrative and skepticism about the role of private sector in water supply and sanitation could be shared. The experience of Morocco, Gulf countries and Jordan (government and private sector) shed light on the frame conditions for working and sustainable PPPs to buffer the cost of universal access to water and sanitation as stipulated in SDG 6. A second layer of this question is about ways to make adaptation in the water sector a sustainable business case the way renewable energy has attracted huge investments.